# Advanced Micro I – Williams Final Edition

1. An urban rapid-transit line runs crowded trains (200 passengers per car) at rush hours, but very empty trains (ten passengers per car) at off peak hours. A management consultant makes the following argument: “The cost of running a car for one trip on this line is about $50 regardless of the number of passengers. So the per passenger cost is about 25¢ at rush hour but rises to$5 per passenger in off peak hours. Consequently, we had better discourage off-peak hour business.” Explain the fallacy.

“Commutation tickets” sold by some transit systems (reduced-price, multiple-ride tickets) are predominantly used in rush hours. Are such tickets a good idea?

(#42)

2. Give a brief answer to the following:

A person who loses his job through no fault of his own is also unemployed thereafter through no fault of his own.

(#40.d)

3. Give a brief answer to the following:

Cost minimization is the general criterion of economic behavior.*

*Hint: Williams implicitly assumes costs are accounting costs.

(#40.b)

4. True or false: Cost curves are monetized reciprocals of product curves? Explain.

(#76, #104, 2014 2.b)

5. Give a brief answer to the following:

Collusions have the natural tendency to break down.

(#40.a)

6. Do externalities offer unambiguous proof of market inefficiency or is it possible for externalities to be consistent with market efficiency?*

*Hint: Professor Williams takes the mainstream view that a situation is efficient iff it is pareto-optimal.

(#44, part 2)

7. The literature on the behavior of the firm poses it as a profit maximizer, a wealth maximizer, a growth maximizer, a sales maximizer, a sales maximizer subject to a prescribed profit rate.

Which of these do you use, why, and how do you manage to allow for these other assertions of firm behavior?

(#45)

8. Give a brief answer to the following:

Laissez-faire capitalism encourages deceitful advertising, dishonesty, and faithlessness.

(#40.c)

9. Is the following statement true, false, or uncertain? Explain.

A monopolist will never set price and quantity at a point where the demand is price-inelastic.

(2014 #3.a)

10. Atomistic markets are supposed to permit the achievement of Pareto optimality where externalities are absent.

Explain the meaning of this statement.

(#44, part 1)